About the Gallipoli Campaign
On 15th February 1915 the British launched a naval campaign against the Turkish forces at the straits of the Dardanelles in an attempt to gain control of the straits and to open up a third front. After the naval attack failed it was decided that land troops from Britain, Australia and New Zealand would be brought in to hold back the Turkish defenses so the navy could push through to the Dardanelles.
Two months later, on 25th April 1915, the first of the Australian and New Zealand forces landed on the eastern coast of the Gallipoli Peninsula near ANZAC Cove, and the British at Cape Helles in the south. Unfortunately for the Allied forced the two month interval between the initial naval attack and arrival of the land troops gave the Turkish army plenty of time to reinforce its defenses. What followed were nine months of ferocious battle, which finally culminated with the withdrawal of the Allied troops in December 1915 and January 1916, and the tragic loss of some 36,000 Australian, New Zealand and British lives.
Today the soldiers who fought here are commemorated at the many memorials dotting the region. Once an important battlefield, Lone Pine now houses a cemetery and memorial dedicated to the Australian soldiers who died during the campaign and is the location of the Australian service on ANZAC Day. In August 1915 Chunuk Bair was the site of a battle fought between Turkish and New Zealand and British troops. Today the site contains a poignant cemetery and tall obelisk memorial, and it is the location of the New Zealand service on ANZAC Day. In addition to these monuments, there is also the Twelve Tree Copse, Hill 60, Shell Green Cemetery and Helles Memorial.